Review Article| Volume 1, ISSUE 3, P164-175, 1988

Assessment and imaging of the pediatric and adolescent gynecologic patient

      This paper is only available as a PDF. To read, Please Download here.


      The majority of physicians are never taught how to assess the child or adolescent who has a problem of the reproductive system. Consequently, doctors feel ill-prepared and inadequate conducting a thorough evaluation. This review is intended as a guide to the assessment of the pediatric and adolescent gynecologic patient. Techniques that aid the physician in carrying out the physical examination and adjunctive imaging modalities are reviewed.

      Key Words

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'


      Subscribe to Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • Tanner J
        • Davies P
        Clinical longitudinal standards for height and weight velocity for North American children.
        J Pediatr. 1985; 107: 317
        • Tanner J
        Growth at Adolescence. 2nd edition. Blackwell Scientific Publishers, Oxford1962: 28-40
        • Huffman J
        • Dewhurst C
        • Caprara V
        The Gynecology of Childhood and Adolescence. 2nd edition. W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia1981: 24-100
        • Emans S
        • Goldstein D
        The gynecologic examination of the prepubertal child with vulvovaginitis: Use of the knee-chest position.
        Pediatrics. 1980; 65: 758
        • Greulich W
        • Pyle S
        Radiographic Atlas of Skeletal Development of the Hand and Wrist. 2nd edition. Standford University Press, Palo Alto1959
        • Bayley N
        • Pinneau S
        Tables for predicting adult height and skeletal age: Revised for use with Greulich-Pyle hand standards.
        J Pediatr. 1952; 40: 423
        • Andre C
        • Bihan B
        Pelvic echography.
        in: Kalifa G Pediatric Ultrasonography. Springer-Verlag, New York1986: 208-231
        • Kurjak A
        • Jurkovic D
        The value of ultrasound in the initial assessment of gynecologic patients.
        Ultrasound Med Biol. 1987; 13: 401
        • Haller J
        • Fellows R
        Haller J Shkolnik A The Pelvis Ultrasound in Pediatrics. Churchill Livingstone, New York1981: 165-185
        • Sample W
        • Lippe B
        • Gyepes M
        Gray-Scale, ultrasonography of the normal female pelvis.
        Radiology. 1977; 125: 477
        • Ivarsson S-A
        • Nilsson K
        • Persson P-H
        Ultrasonography of the pelvic organs in prepubertal and postpub-ertal girls.
        Arch Dis Child. 1983; 58: 352
        • Stanhope R
        • Adams J
        • Jacobs H
        • et al.
        Ovarian ultrasound assessment in normal children, idiopathic precocious puberty, and during low dose pulsatile gonadotrophin releasing hormone treatment of hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism.
        Arch Dis Child. 1985; 60: 116
        • Orsini L
        • Salardi S
        • Pilv G
        • et al.
        Pelvic organs in premenarchal girls: Real-time ultrasonography.
        Radiology. 1984; 153: 113
        • Salardi S
        • Orsini L
        • Cacciari E
        • et al.
        Pelvic ultrasonography in premenarchal girls: Relation to puberty and sex hormone concentrations.
        Arch Dis Child. 1985; 60: 120
        • Lippe B
        • Sample W
        Pelvic ultrasound in pediatric and adolescent endocrine disorders.
        J Pediatr. 1978; 92: 897
        • Holmes J
        Urologic ultrasound.
        in: King D Diagnostic Ultrasound. CV Mosby, Toronto1974: 242-259
        • Hagen-Ansert S
        in: Textbook of Diagnostic Ultrasonography. 2nd edition. CV Mosby, Toronto1983: 192-207
        • Neuenschwander S
        • Montagne J
        Urinary tract abnormalities.
        in: Kalifa G Pediatric Ultrasonography. Springer-Verlag, New York1986: 142-172
        • Babcock D
        Medical diseases of the urinary tract and adrenal glands.
        in: Haller J Shkolnik A Ultrasound in Pediatrics. Churchill Livingstone, New York1981: 113-134
        • Markle B
        • Potter B
        Surgical diseases of the urinary tract.
        in: Haller J Shkolnik A Ultrasound in Pediatrics. Churchill Livingstone, New York1981: 134-164
        • Hagen-Ansert S
        Adrenal glands.
        in: Textbook of Diagnostic Ultrasonography. 2nd edition. CV Mosby, Toronto1983: 215-220
        • Yamakita N
        • Yasuka K
        • Miura K
        Delineation of adrenal or controls and nontumorous adrenal disorders by realtime ultrasonic-scanner.
        Ultrasound in Med and Biol. 1986; 12: 107
        • Sanfilippo J
        • Booth R
        • Fellows R
        Ultrasonography in the pediatric gyn patient.
        Pediatric Annals. 1986; 15: 607
        • Cremin B
        • Mervis B
        Pediatric abdominal computed tomography: The technique and use in neuroblastomas and pelvic masses.
        Br J Radiol. 1983; 56: 291
        • Bree R
        • Schwab R
        Contribution of mesenteric fat to unsatisfactory abdominal and pelvic ultrasonography.
        Radiology. 1981; 140: 773
        • Geoffray A
        • Couanet D
        • Montagne J
        • et al.
        Ultrasonography and computed tomography for diagnosis and follow-up of pelvic rhabdomyosarcomas in children.
        Pediatric Radiology. 1987; 17: 132
        • Yamakita N
        • Yasuda K
        • Goshima E
        • et al.
        Comparative assessment of ultrasonography and computed tomography in adrenal disorders.
        Ultrasound Med Biol. 1986; 12: 23
        • Reith K
        • Comite F
        • Shawker T
        • et al.
        Pituitary and ovarian abnormalities demonstrated by CT and ultrasound in children with features of the McCune-Albright syndrome.
        Radiology. 1984; 153: 389
        • Hricak H
        • Alpers C
        • Crooks L
        • et al.
        Magnetic resonance imaging of the female pelvis: Initial experience.
        AJR. 1983; 141: 1119
        • McCarthy S
        • Vaquera E
        Gynecologic anatomy with magnetic resonance imaging.
        Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1986; 155: 255
        • Hricak H
        • Lacey C
        • Schriock E
        • et al.
        Gynecologic masses: Value of magnetic resonance imaging.
        Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1985; 153: 31
        • Mitchel D
        • Mintz M
        • Spritzer C
        • et al.
        Adrenal masses: MR imaging observations at 1.5T with ultrasound and CT correlation.
        Radiology. 1987; 162: 319
        • Nishimura K
        • Togashi K
        • Itok K
        • et al.
        Endometrial cysts of the ovary: MR imaging.
        Radiology. 1987; 162: 315
        • Nussbaum A
        • Sanders R
        • Jones M
        Neonatal uterine morphology as seen on real-time ultrasound.
        Radiology. 1986; 160: 641
        • McCarthy S
        • Taylor K
        Sonography of vaginal masses.
        AJR. 1983; 140: 1005
        • Wilson D
        • Stacy T
        • Smith E
        Ultrasound diagnosis of hydrocolpos and hydrometrocolpos.
        Radiology. 1978; 128: 451
        • Shenker L
        • Brickman F
        Bicornuate uterus with incomplete vaginal septum and unilateral renal agenesis.
        Radiology. 1979; 133: 455
        • Friedman H
        • Vogelzang R
        • Mendelson E
        • et al.
        Endometriosis detection by ultrasound with laparoscopic correlation.
        Radiology. 1985; 157: 217
        • Boepple P
        • Mansfield M
        • Wierman M
        Use of a potent long-acting agonist of gonadotropin releasing hormone in the treatment of precocious puberty.
        Endocrine Reviews. 1986; 7: 24
        • Haller J
        • Bass I
        • Friedman A
        Pelvic masses in girls: An 8-year retrospective analysis stressing ultrasound as the prime imaging modality.
        Pediatr Radiology. 1984; 14: 363
        • Reynolds T
        • Hill M
        • Glassman L
        Sonography of hemorrhagic ovarian cysts.
        J Clin Ultrasound. 1986; 14: 449
        • Farrel T
        • Boal D
        • Teele R
        • et al.
        Acute torsion of normal uterine adnexa in children: Sonography Demonstration.
        AJR. 1982; 139: 1223
        • Allen R
        Tumor masses of the neonate.
        Clin Perinatal. 1978; 5: 115