Advertisement

Dysmenorrhea Prevalence among Adolescents in Eastern Turkey: Its Effects on School Performance and Relationships with Family and Friends

      Abstract

      Study Objective

      To evaluate the effect of menstrual pain duration and severity on education performance and attitudes towards family and friends among Turkish female adolescents.

      Design

      Descriptive study.

      Setting

      26 high schools located in Erzurum, Northeastern Turkey.

      Participants

      A total of 1951 single female adolescents, aged 13 to 18 years, were selected for this study.

      Main Outcome Measures

      The effect of dysmenorrhea on female adolescents' relationships with families and friends and school performance.

      Results

      The prevalence of dysmenorrhea was high among female adolescents (68.1–72.2%). Pain mostly lasted for one to three days (56.6%), followed by less than 1 day (23.5%) and more than 4 days (14.9%), respectively. Several symptoms were observed including sweating, appetite loss, headache, distraction, nausea/vomiting, dizziness, diarrhoea, and fainting. School performance was negatively affected by dysmenorrhea. The main visible adverse effects were an inability to focus on the courses, absenteeism from school, and missing exams. One third of the subjects had problems with their families, and they reflected their problems onto family members. This situation also negatively affected their relationships with friends. Statistically significant correlations were observed between pain duration and severity, and school performance (P < 0.0001), relationships with their families (P < 0.001) and friends (P < 0.0001).

      Conclusions

      Findings of this research suggested that dysmenorrhea prevalence was high among female adolescents. The duration and intensity of pain adversely affected school and social attitudes towards their families and friends.

      Key Words

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Harel Z.
        A contemporary approach to dysmenorrhea in adolescents.
        Paediatr Drugs. 2002; 4: 797
        • Hsu C.S.
        • Yang J.K.
        • Yang L.L.
        Effect of a dysmenorrhea Chinese medicinal prescription on uterus contractility in vitro.
        Phytother Res. 2003; 17: 778
        • Tonini G.
        [Dysmenorrhea, endometriosis and premenstrual syndrome.].
        Minerva Pediatr. 2002; 54: 525
        • Demir S.C.
        • Kadayýfçý T.O.
        • Vardar M.A.
        • et al.
        Dysfunctional uterine bleeding and other menstrual problems of secondary school students in Adana, Turkey.
        J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. 2000; 13: 171
        • Vicdan K.
        • Kukner S.
        • Dabakoglu T.
        • et al.
        Demographic and epidemiologic features of female adolescents in Turkey.
        J Adolesc Health. 1996; 18: 54
        • Ali Z.
        • Burnett I.
        • Eccles R.
        • et al.
        Efficacy of a paracetamol and caffeine combination in the treatment of the key symptoms of primary dysmenorrhoea.
        Curr Med Res Opin. 2007; 23: 841
        • Harel Z.
        Dysmenorrhea in adolescents and young adults: etiology and management.
        J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. 2006; 19: 363
        • Coco A.S.
        Primary dysmenorrhea.
        Am Fam Physician. 1999; 60: 489
        • Eby G.A.
        Zinc treatment prevents dysmenorrhea.
        Med Hypotheses. 2007; 69: 297
        • Balbi C.
        • Musone R.
        • Menditto A.
        • et al.
        Influence of menstrual factors and dietary habits on menstrual pain in adolescence age.
        Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2000; 91: 143
        • Beckman C.R.B.
        • Ling F.W.
        • Laube D.W.
        • et al.
        Obstetrics and Gynecology.
        Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Maryland2002 (pp 408–409)
        • Fogel K.I.
        Experiences and disorders of the menstrual cycle.
        in: Lowdermilk D.L. Maternity and Women's Health Care. 6th ed. Mosby-Year Book, St Louis1997: 1149
        • Sultan C.
        • Paris F.
        • Feki M.
        • et al.
        Epidemiology of dysmenorrhea in adolescents in France.
        Ann Pediatr. 1999; 46: 518
        • Burroughs A.
        • Leifer G.
        Maternity Nursing: An Introductory Text.
        WB Saunders Co, Philadelphia2001 (p 353)
        • Jun E.M.
        • Chang S.
        • Kang D.H.
        • et al.
        Effects of acupressure on dysmenorrhea and skin temperature changes in college students: a non-randomized controlled trial.
        Int J Nurs Stud. 2007; 44: 973
        • Banikarim C.
        • Chacko M.R.
        • Kelder S.H.
        Prevalence and impact of dysmenorrhea on Hispanic female adolescents.
        Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2000; 154: 1226
        • Cakir M.
        • Mungan I.
        • Karakas T.
        • et al.
        Menstrual pattern and common menstrual disorders among university students in Turkey.
        Pediatr Int. 2007; 49: 938
        • Hillen T.I.
        • Grbavac S.L.
        • Johnston P.J.
        • et al.
        Primary dysmenorrhea in young Western Australian women: Prevalence, impact, and knowledge of treatment.
        J Adolesc Health. 1999; 25: 40
        • Durain D.
        Primary dysmenorrhea: assessment and management update.
        J Midwifery Womens Health. 2004; 49: 520
        • Tzafettas J.
        Painful menstruation.
        Pediatr Endocrinol Rev. 2006; 3: 160
        • Tseng Y.-F.
        • Chen C.-H.
        • Yang Y- H.
        Rose tea for relief of primary dysmenorrhea in adolescents: a randomized controlled trial in Taiwan.
        J Midwifery Womens Health. 2005; 50: e51
      1. Governorship of Erzurum of Republic of Turkey: Provincial Directorate of Tourism, 1992

        • Moore D.S.
        • McCabe G.P.
        Introduction to the practice of statistics.
        Freeman, New York1989 (pp 278–283)
        • Wong D.L.
        • Perry S.E.
        • Hockenberry M.J.
        Maternal Child Nursing Care.
        2nd ed. Mosby, St. Louis2002 (p 1089)
        • Lee L.K.
        • Chen P.C.
        • Lee K.K.
        • et al.
        Menstruation among adolescent girls in Malaysia: a cross-sectional school survey.
        Singapore Med J. 2006; 47: 869
      2. Güler S, Bodur S, Çivi S. Genç kızlarda ağrılı adet sıklığı ve adet dönemi uygulamaları.V. Ulusal Halk sağlığı Kongresi. Bildiri Kitabı, 1996; 12-16 Ekim, Istanbul, Turkey

        • Hirata M.
        • Kumabe K.
        • Inoue Y.
        [Relationship between the frequency of menstrual pain and bodyweight in female adolescents.].
        Nippon Koshu Eisei Zasshi [Jpn J Publ Health]. 2002; 49: 516
        • Mijanović D.
        Correlation between certain factors in maturation and primary dysmenorrhea in adolescence.
        Jugosl Ginekol Perinatol. 1990; 30: 79
        • Roth-Isigkeit A.
        • Thyen U.
        • Stöven H.
        • et al.
        Pain among children and adolescents: restrictions in daily living and triggering factors.
        Pediatrics. 2005; 115: e152
        • Pedrón-Nuevon N.
        • González-Unzaga L.N.
        • De Celis-Carrillo R.
        • et al.
        [Incidence of dysmenorrhea and associated symptoms in women aged 12-24 years.].
        Ginecol Obstet Mex. 1998; 66: 492
        • Deligeoroglou E.
        Dysmenorrhea.
        Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2000; 900: 237
        • Harlow S.D.
        • Park M.
        A longitudinal study of risk factors for the occurrence, duration and severity of menstrual cramps in a cohort of college women.
        Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1996; 103: 1134
        • Davis A.
        • O'Connell K.
        • Gallagher N.
        • et al.
        Self-treatment patterns among adolescent girls with moderate or severe primary dysmenorrhea. [Clinical and research poster presentations].
        J Adolesc Health. 2004; 34: 134
        • Burnett M.A.
        • Antao V.
        • Black A.
        • et al.
        Prevalence of primary dysmenorrhea in Canada.
        J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2005; 27: 765
        • El-Gilany A.H.
        • Badawi K.
        • El-Fedawy S.
        Epidemiology of dysmenorrhoea among adolescent students in Mansoura.
        East Mediterr Health J. 2005; 11: 155
        • Ziaei S.
        • Zakeri M.
        • Kazemnejad A.
        A randomised controlled trial of vitamin E in the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea.
        BJOG. 2005; 112: 466
        • Chen C.H.
        • Lin Y.H.
        • Heitkemper M.M.
        • et al.
        The self-care strategies of girls with primary dysmenorrhea: a focus group study in Taiwan.
        Health Care Women Int. 2006; 27: 418