Vaccination against Human Papillomavirus in relation to Financial Crisis: The “Evaluation and Education of Greek Female Adolescents on Human Papillomaviruses’ Prevention Strategies” ELEFTHERIA Study

Published:December 24, 2015DOI:


      Study Objective

      In this study we aimed to explore financial and other sociodemographic factors that affect nonvaccination against the human papillomavirus (HPV) in Greece, one of the first European Union countries to introduce the vaccination against HPV into its National Immunization Programme in 2008.

      Design, Setting, Participants, Interventions, and Main Outcome Measures

      Six hundred thirty-two female adolescents (aged 11-16 years) from Greece completed a pilot cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey (ELEFTHERIA study) from 2008 to 2014.


      Overall, only 8.9% (56 of 632) of the female adolescents reported that they had received all 3 doses of the HPV vaccination. The HPV vaccination uptake rates increased gradually from 3.2% (3 of 95) in 2008 to 17.1% (14 of 82) in 2011. However, it abruptly decreased to 2.1% (2 of 95) in 2012 and it reached 9.2% (8 of 87) in 2013 and 11.5% (11 of 96) in 2014. The most common factors for nonvaccination included fear of side effects, which decreased (Spearman ρ = −0.860; P = .024) and financial issues, which increased statistically significantly (Spearman ρ = 0.890; P = .012) during the years 2008 to 2014.


      In our study we addressed the novel topic of the association of financial issues with HPV vaccination compliance and highlighted the urgent need to provide and maintain health insurance coverage to children in Greece, a country in financial crisis.

      Key Words

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