Original Report| Volume 32, ISSUE 5, P546-549, October 2019

Risk Factors for Endometrial Cancer or Hyperplasia in Adolescents and Women 25 Years Old or Younger


      Study Objective

      To evaluate characteristics of young women with endometrial hyperplasia or cancer.


      Retrospective chart review.


      Tertiary care referral center.

      Participants, Interventions, and Main Outcome Measures

      We included 10- to 25-year-old young women seen at a single institution between 2006 and 2017 with International Classification of Diseases 9th and 10th revision codes for endometrial cancer or hyperplasia (cases), or who underwent an endometrial biopsy with other benign pathologic diagnoses (controls). Exclusions included a diagnosis of Lynch syndrome. Comparisons were made using χ2, Fisher exact, and nonparametric Wilcoxon rank tests.


      Sixty-nine patients were identified: 13 cases, 54 controls, and 2 exclusions. Of the 13 cases, 3 had endometrial cancer, 5 had complex atypical hyperplasia (now called endometrioid intraepithelial neoplasia), and 5 had hyperplasia without atypia. A higher proportion of cases had a body mass index (BMI) greater than 30, compared with controls (76.9% vs 40.4%; P < .03). The proportion of patients who had a BMI greater than 30 and were smokers was significantly higher among cases (38.5% vs 9.3%; P < .02). The proportion of patients with a history of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and smoking was also significantly different between groups (30.8% vs 3.7%; P < .01).


      In women aged 25 years and younger with endometrial sampling, a BMI greater than 30 was statistically more common in patients with endometrioid intraepithelial neoplasia or cancer. Although smoking or PCOS alone was not related to endometrial hyperplasia or cancer in this small cohort study, there might be a relationship between endometrial abnormalities and multiple exposures, including smoking and BMI greater than 30 or smoking and a history of PCOS.

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