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Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Encephalitis Associated with Mature Ovarian Teratoma in a Young Adolescent: A Case Report

Published:December 01, 2021DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpag.2021.11.009

      Abstract

      Background

      Ovarian teratoma has an uncommon association with anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis. This is a life-threatening condition, and here, we describe a case of an adolescent girl with anti-NMDAR encephalitis caused by an ovarian teratoma.

      Case

      A 14-year-old girl presented with acute features of fever, severe headache, altered behavioral changes, delirium, autonomic instability, episodes of seizure, and involuntary movement over a period of 1 month. Upon investigation, electroencephalogram (EEG), computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of her brain showed normal findings. Her serum and cerebrospinal fluid were positive for anti-NMDARs, and a diagnosis of anti-NMDAR encephalitis was made, so she received a course of intravenous methyl prednisolone and immunoglobulin and was discharged after her neurological status improved. Upon further workup, she was suspected to have a left ovarian dermoid cyst on transabdominal ultrasonogram, which was an incidental finding. Her tumor marker panel showed normal serum lactate dehydrogenase, beta human chorionic gonadotropin, inhibin, alpha-fetoprotein, and carcinoembryonic antigen and a cancer antigen 125 level of 71.5 U/L. She eventually underwent laparoscopic left ovarian cystectomy and received immunotherapy in the postoperative period. She was discharged in stable condition on postoperative day 4. On histopathological examination, the specimen revealed a mature cystic teratoma with glial component. One year after surgery, the patient has recovered completely and has no residual psychiatric or neurological symptoms.

      Conclusion

      Complete recovery after surgery in cases of anti-NMDAR encephalitis with ovarian teratoma emphasizes the need for early recognition of the entity, search for underlying tumor, and tumor removal to improve the prognosis.

      Key Words

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