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Non-Obstetric Traumatic Vulvar Hematomas in Premenarchal and Postmenarchal Girls

Published:March 28, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpag.2022.03.006

      ABSTRACT

      Background

      Traumatic non-obstetrical hematomas of the vulva are rare, and most reports only involve adult patients. There are no data on presentation, management, and outcomes from either conservative or surgical management in pediatric and adolescent patients. The objective of this project was to compare the etiology, treatment, and outcomes of traumatic vulvar hematomas occurring in premenarchal and postmenarchal young women.

      Methods

      A retrospective chart review was performed on females aged 0-24 years seen at a tertiary care academic center using ICD 9 and 10 codes for traumatic vulvar hematoma from 2006-2019. Data describing their clinical presentation and course were collected. IRB approval was obtained.

      Results

      Twenty patients, aged 3-23 years (median age of 13.5 years) were identified. All 8 premenarchal patients presented with a straddle injury, whereas only 50% of postmenarchal patients were found to have a straddle injury. Other etiologies among postmenarchal patients included consensual sexual intercourse and recent vulvar surgery. Hematoma diameter ranged from 1-3 cm in premenarchal patients and 0.4-7 cm in postmenarchal patients. Associated perineal lacerations were reported in 50% of the premenarchal girls and 8% of postmenarchal young women.
      Of the 8 premenarchal patients, 5 were managed conservatively, and 3 were taken to the operating room for repair of perineal lacerations; 1 patient also underwent evacuation of a 3-cm hematoma. Of the 12 postmenarchal patients, 5 had surgical intervention, 2 for pain secondary to large 7-cm hematomas and 3 for suspected vulvar abscesses, which were identified as hematomas after drainage. One patient in each group required a Foley catheter for comfort.
      Two postmenarchal patients required a second surgery for further wound management. One premenarchal patient with surgical treatment required a follow-up exam under anesthesia. Four patients were admitted for pain and postoperative observation, 1 of whom was premenarchal.
      Eleven patients were seen for follow-up, and 10 were doing well. One postmenarchal patient in the conservative management group returned to the Emergency Department with continued pain 10 days later.

      Conclusions

      In this study that examined traumatic vulvar hematomas in premenarchal and postmenarchal young women, the only mechanism of injury in premenarchal girls was straddle injury, and surgical intervention was usually needed only for repair of perineal lacerations, not a primary hematoma. In the postmenarchal patients, surgical intervention was undertaken for larger hematomas and suspected vulvar abscesses. Our study suggests that most hematomas up to 3 cm in premenarchal patients and up to 6 cm in postmenarchal patients can be managed conservatively.
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