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Contraceptive Service Uptake and Delivery Preferences in Perinatally and Horizontally Infected Female Adolescents Living with HIV: Results from a South Africa-Based Mixed-Methods Study'

  • Biodun Olagbuji
    Correspondence
    Address correspondence to: Biodun Nelson Olagbuji, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, College of Medicine, Ekiti State University, Nigeria
    Affiliations
    Women's Health Research Unit, School of Public Health and Family Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, South Africa
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  • Diane Cooper
    Affiliations
    Women's Health Research Unit, School of Public Health and Family Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, South Africa

    School of Public Health, University of the Western Cape, South Africa
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  • Catherine Mathews
    Affiliations
    Health Systems Research Unit, South Africa Medical Research Council, South Africa
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  • Jennifer Moodley
    Affiliations
    Women's Health Research Unit, School of Public Health and Family Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, South Africa
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      Study Objective

      To investigate whether contraceptive service uptake (including current contraceptive use), unmet need for contraception, unintended pregnancy, preferences for service provision, and providers among female adolescents living with HIV (ALHIV) vary with HIV-acquisition route, that is, perinatal HIV acquisition vs horizontal HIV acquisition.

      Design

      Mixed methods including exit and in-depth interviews

      Setting

      Multicenter, public sector primary health care facilities, Cape Town, South Africa

      Participants

      Sexually experienced female ALHIV aged 14-19 years (n = 303) including both peri/postnatally infected ALHIV (pALHIV) and horizontally infected ALHIV (hALHIV) and health care providers involved in HIV care and treatment services (n = 19)

      Main Outcome Measures

      Current contraceptive use, unintended pregnancy, and preferences for service provision and providers

      Results

      The association between HIV-acquisition route and current use of any contraceptive method (aOR = 1.23; 95% CI, 0.52-2.92) and unintended pregnancy (aOR = 1.02; 95% CI, 0.39-2.67) was not significant. In contrast, pALHIV had significantly decreased odds of receiving dual-method contraception (aOR = 0.02; 95% CI, 0.00-0.38) and significantly increased odds of preferences for younger providers (aOR = 4.45; 95% CI, 2.84-6.97), female providers (aOR = 5.11; 95% CI, 1.25-20.91), and standalone youth clinics (aOR = 7.01; 95% CI, 2.39-20.55) compared with female hALHIV. Qualitative findings indicate that provider positive attitudes, as opposed to judgmental attitudes, encourage pALHIV acceptance of care from any provider regardless of, for example, the provider's age.

      Conclusions

      Current contraceptive use and unintended pregnancies were similar between pALHIV and hALHIV, but the 2 distinct groups of ALHIV were heterogeneous in terms of dual-method contraception and preferences for type of clinic model and providers. Promoting positive provider attitudes could improve ALHIV's contraceptive uptake.

      Key Words

      The list of abbreviations:

      ALHIV (adolescents living with HIV), aOR (adjusted odds ratio), HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), hALHIV (adolescents who acquired HIV via a horizontal transmission), pALHIV (adolescents who acquired HIV via a perinatal transmission), PHC (primary health care clinic), TX (Texas), UNAIDS (Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS), SRH (sexual and reproductive health), STATA (Software for Statistics and Data Science)
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