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Adverse Effects of Early Puberty Timing in Girls and Potential Solutions

  • Tuck Seng Cheng
    Affiliations
    MRC Epidemiology Unit, Institute of Metabolic Science, University of Cambridge, Cambridge Biomedical Campus Box 285, Cambridge, CB2 0QQ, United Kingdom

    Cancer Epidemiology Unit, Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX3 7LF, United Kingdom
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  • Ken K. Ong
    Affiliations
    MRC Epidemiology Unit, Institute of Metabolic Science, University of Cambridge, Cambridge Biomedical Campus Box 285, Cambridge, CB2 0QQ, United Kingdom

    Department of Paediatrics, University of Cambridge, Cambridge Biomedical Campus Box 116, Cambridge, CB2 0QQ, United Kingdom
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  • Frank M. Biro
    Correspondence
    Address correspondence to: Frank M. Biro, Division of Adolescent and Transition Medicine, 3333 Burnet Ave, Cincinnati OH 45229, United States of America.
    Affiliations
    Division of Adolescent and Transition Medicine, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio; Department of Pediatrics, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, Ohio, United States of America
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      Abstract

      Given the global secular declining trends of the age at puberty and its relevant mechanisms, as illustrated in the first part of this series, the present part will discuss the public health implications of early puberty and potential clinical and public health measures. Although the major effect of earlier maturation impacts adolescents’ mental health and likelihood of engaging in risky behaviors, there are also effects in adulthood on cardiometabolic health, especially type 2 diabetes, and an increased risk of certain cancers, especially hormone-related cancers such as breast cancer. The paper ends with recommendations for clinical management, especially for girls who should receive further evaluation, as well as recommendations for the patient and her family and public health considerations.

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