Dual Protection Messaging for Adolescents and Young Adults in the Setting of Over-the-Counter Hormonal Contraception: A Human-Centered Design Approach

Published:August 28, 2022DOI:


      Study Objective

      To use human-centered design approaches to engage adolescents and young adults in the creation of messages focused on dual method use in the setting of over-the-counter hormonal contraception access


      Baseline survey and self-directed workbooks with human-centered design activities were completed. The workbooks were transcribed and analyzed using qualitative methods to determine elements of the communication model, including sender, receiver, message, media, and environment.


      Indiana and Georgia


      People aged 14-21 years in Indiana and Georgia


      Self-directed workbooks

      Main Outcome Measures

      Elements of the communication model, including sender, receiver, message, media, and environment


      We analyzed 54 workbooks, with approximately half from each state. Stakeholders self-identified as female (60.5%), white (50.9%), Hispanic (10.0%), sexually active (69.8%), and heterosexual (79.2%), with a mean age of 18 years. Most strongly agreed (75.5%) that they knew how to get condoms, but only 30.2% expressed the same sentiment about hormonal contraception. Exploration of the elements of the communication model indicated the importance of crafting tailored messages to intended receivers. Alternative terminology for dual protection, such as “Condom+____,” was created.


      There is a need for multiple and diverse messaging strategies about dual method use in the context of over-the-counter hormonal contraception to address the various pertinent audiences as this discussion transitions outside of traditional clinical encounters. Human-centered design approaches can be used for novel message development.

      Key Words


      AYAs (adolescents and young adults), OTC (over-the-counter), STI (sexually transmitted infection), RJ (Research Jam)
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