Original Article| Volume 36, ISSUE 1, P33-38, February 2023

Postoperative Vaginal Bleeding Concerns after Gender-Affirming Hysterectomy in Transgender Adolescents and Young Adults on Testosterone

  • Danielle T. Cipres
    Address correspondence to: Danielle T. Cipres, MD, Division of Gynecology, 333 Longwood Avenue, 5th floor, Boston, MA 02115; Phone (617) 355-7648; Fax (617) 730-0186
    Division of Gynecology, Department of Surgery, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts

    Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts
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  • Jessica Y. Shim
    Division of Gynecology, Department of Surgery, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts

    Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts
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  • Frances W. Grimstad
    Division of Gynecology, Department of Surgery, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts

    Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts
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Published:September 07, 2022DOI:

      Study Objective

      This study aimed to characterize the incidence and management of postoperative vaginal bleeding concerns experienced by transgender adolescents and young adults (AYA) on testosterone hormone therapy after gender-affirming hysterectomy (GAH).


      This was a retrospective cohort of transgender AYA, 18 years and older, using testosterone therapy who underwent a GAH between July 2020 and September 2021 at a tertiary care children's hospital. The incidence of patient-reported postoperative vaginal bleeding concerns and management of bleeding are described.


      Patient ages ranged between 18 and 33 years. Among 25 patients who met the inclusion criteria, 13 (52.0%) reported vaginal bleeding concerns. No modifiable patient or operative characteristics reached statistical significance in association with postoperative bleeding concerns. Among patients with bleeding concerns, 10 (76.9%) experienced such concerns during the first 2 weeks after surgery, and 6 (46.2%) had resolution of bleeding without intervention. Among 11 patients who underwent an exam for evaluation of bleeding, findings included granulation tissue (n = 5, 45.5%), vaginal atrophy (n = 4, 36.4%), bleeding vessel (n = 1, 9.1%), mucosal separation (n = 1, 9.1%), or no cause of bleeding identified (n = 4, 36.4%).


      Over half of transgender AYA on testosterone therapy in this cohort reported postoperative vaginal bleeding concerns that were most often secondary to atrophy and granulation tissue, suggesting possible susceptibility to vaginal tissue trauma at the time of GAH and granulation-susceptible healing in patients on testosterone. As vaginal bleeding could worsen gender dysphoria, these findings support the need for patient counseling on postoperative bleeding expectations and identification of interventions to reduce vaginal bleeding after GAH.

      Key Words

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