Unique Evaluation and Management Considerations for Adolescents with Late Gynecologic and Colorectal Issues in the Setting of Anorectal Malformations

Published:December 16, 2022DOI:


      Study Objective

      There is little guidance for managing pubertally identified Mullerian anomalies in patients with anorectal malformations (ARMs). We sought to assess these unique issues.


      Retrospective review


      Single-institution study


      Natal female patients aged 10-25, with an ARM, cloaca, or exstrophy, who presented from 2009 to 2019 with a gynecologic concern were included.


      Data collection was performed and included the presenting problem, psychological evaluation, fertility and sexuality concerns, and management strategies for these problems.

      Main Outcome Measures

      The main outcome was unique needs that had to be addressed in the young adult population and the type of colorectal and gynecological procedures needed on representation.


      Twelve patients were identified; all had gynecologic concerns. Ten had ARMs, including cloaca (n = 3) and cloacal exstrophy (n = 5). Median age at representation was 14.6 years (IQR = 12.7, 15.3). Colorectal revisions included posterior sagittal anorectoplasty (n = 1), resection of bowel attached to urogenital sinus (n = 1), and appendicostomy revision (n = 1). Gynecologic issues included dysmenorrhea (n = 8), obstructed Mullerian anomaly (n = 6), and introital stenosis (n = 5). Behavioral health concerns (n = 9) and fertility/sexuality concerns (n = 4) were identified. Median time from first visit to reconstruction was 1.5 years (IQR = 0.5, 1.5), providing multiple visits to achieve consensus among patients and providers before intervention, including vaginal or introital repair (n = 5) and hysterectomy of obstructed uterine horns (n = 3).


      Goal-directed follow-up is required before surgical management to identify psychological and reproductive issues in patients with ARMs who have gynecologic concerns. Patient input and psychologic consultation are helpful for patients requiring staged reconstruction.

      Key Words

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